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cartoons about China and America on the Moon - ESL discussion starters

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发表于 2013-8-10 15:09:04 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 Ray 于 2013-12-7 12:22 编辑

movie "Gravity"; space; cartoons about China & America on the Moon - ESL discussion starters





Gravity 地心引力 (USA,2013)

深邃浩瀚的外层空间,蔚蓝的地球与深不见底、漆黑一片的宇宙形成鲜明对比。一台隶属美国的空间站,数名宇航人员正进行太空漫步,对所属卫星做着例行检查。初上太空的瑞安·斯通博士(桑德拉·布洛克 Sandra Bullock 饰)在经验丰富的宇航员麦特·科沃斯基(乔治·克鲁尼 George Clooney 饰)的协助下,有条不紊地检查每一个部件。此次是科沃斯基退休前的最后一次飞行,他幽默风趣地活跃着团队的氛围。就在此时,休士顿总部传来骇人消息,不久前行将废弃俄罗斯卫星被导弹击毁,碎片以超过子弹的速度在地球轨道上散开,并意外击中其他卫星,引起连锁反应制造了新的碎片。
  瑞安一行遭到碎片重创,有的同伴不幸身亡,而她和科沃斯基失去控制坠入宇宙深处。幸存的二人不得不彼此信赖,拼尽全力朝向故土前进……
©豆瓣

Themes
Despite being set in outer space, the film draws upon motifs from shipwreck and wilderness survival stories about psychological change and resilience in the aftermath of catastrophe.[13][14][15][16] Cuarón uses Stone to illustrate clarity of mind, persistence, training, and improvisation in the face of isolation and the mortal consequences of a relentless Murphy's Law.[4]
The film incorporates spiritual themes both in terms of Ryan's daughter's accidental death, the will to survive in the face of overwhelming odds, as well as the impossibility of rescue.[14] Calamities unfold but there are no witnesses to them, save for the surviving astronauts.[17]
The impact of scenes is heightened by alternating between objective and subjective perspectives, the warm face of the planet and the depths of dark space, the chaos but also predictability of the deadly debris field, and silence of the vacuum of space with the sound of the score.[16][18] The film uses very long and uninterrupted shots throughout to draw the audience into the action but also contrasts these with claustrophobic shots within space suits and capsules.[14][19]
Some commentators have noted religious themes in the film.[20][21][22][23] For instance, Catholic author Fr. Robert Barron summarizes the tension between Gravity's technology and religious symbolism, "The technology which this film legitimately celebrates... can’t save us, and it can’t provide the means by which we establish real contact with each other. The Ganges in the sun, the St. Christopher icon, the statue of Budai, and above all, a visit from a denizen of heaven, signal that there is a dimension of reality that lies beyond what technology can master or access... the reality of God".[23]

"Alfonso Cuarón's Gravity is an eerie, tense sci-fi thriller that's masterfully directed and visually stunning."[55] On Metacritic, which assigns a normalised rating out of 100 based on reviews from critics, the film has a score of 96 (citing "universal acclaim") based on 49 reviews.[56] CinemaScore polls conducted during the opening weekend revealed the average grade cinemagoers gave Gravity was A- on an A+ to F scale.[51]
Matt Zoller Seitz, writing on RogerEbert.com, gave the film a maximum four stars, stating that "Alfonso Cuarón's Gravity, about astronauts coping with disaster, is a huge and technically dazzling film and that the film's panoramas of astronauts tumbling against starfields and floating through space station interiors are at once informative and lovely."[57] At Variety, Justin Chang posits that the film "restores a sense of wonder, terror and possibility to the bigscreen that should inspire awe among critics and audiences worldwide."[58] Richard Corliss of Time proclaimed that "Cuar‪ón shows things that cannot be but, miraculously, are, in the fearful, beautiful reality of the space world above our world. If the film past is dead, Gravity shows us the glory of cinema's future. It thrills on so many levels. And because Cuar‪ón is a movie visionary of the highest order, you truly can't beat the view." He also praised Cuar‪ón for "[playing] daringly and dexterously with point-of-view: at one moment you're inside Ryan's helmet as she surveys the bleak silence, then in a subtle shift you're outside to gauge her reaction. The 3-D effects, added in post-production, provide their own extraterrestrial startle: a hailstorm of debris hurtles at you, as do a space traveler's thoughts at the realization of being truly alone in the universe."[59]
Critics have also praised Gravity by bringing up other notable movies set in space. The way Cuarón employs Ed Harris as the voice of Mission Control is seen as a nod to Apollo 13.[60] Others include Alien,[18] and WALL-E.[61]
Peter Travers of Rolling Stone gave the film four out of four stars, stating that the film was "more than a movie. It's some kind of miracle."[62] A. O. Scott, writing for The New York Times highlighted the use of 3-D "which surpasses even what James Cameron accomplished in the flight sequences of 'Avatar'." Scott went on to say that the film "in a little more than 90 minutes rewrites the rules of cinema as we have known them." [63]
The film was praised by Cameron himself, who said, "I think it's the best space photography ever done, I think it's the best space film ever done, and it's the movie I've been hungry to see for an awful long time";[64] and Quentin Tarantino, who named it one of the ten best movies of 2013 so far.[65]

Plot
Dr. Ryan Stone (Bullock) is a medical engineer[11] on her first space shuttle mission aboard the Space Shuttle Explorer. She is accompanied by veteran astronaut Matt Kowalski (Clooney), who is commanding his final expedition. During aspacewalk to service the Hubble Space Telescope, Mission Control in Houston warns the team about a Russian missile strike on a defunct satellite, which has caused a chain reaction forming a cloud of space debris. Mission Control orders that the mission be aborted. Shortly after, communications with Mission Control are lost, though the astronauts continue to transmit, hoping that the ground crew can still hear them.
High-speed debris strikes the Explorer and detaches Stone from the shuttle, leaving her tumbling through space. Kowalski soon recovers Stone and they make their way back to the space shuttle. They discover that the shuttle has suffered catastrophic damage and the crew is dead. They use the thruster pack to make their way to the International Space Station(ISS), which is in orbit only about 100 km (60 mi) away. Kowalski estimates they have 90 minutes before the debris field completes an orbit and threatens them again.
En route to the ISS, the two discuss Stone's life back home and the death of her young daughter. As they approach the substantially damaged but still operational ISS, they see its crew has evacuated in one of its two Soyuz modules and that the parachute of the other capsule has accidentally been deployed, rendering it useless for returning to Earth. Kowalski suggests the remaining Soyuz be used to travel to the nearby Chinese space station Tiangong and board one of its similarly designed Shenzhou modules to return safely to Earth. Out of air and maneuvering power, the two try and grab onto the ISS as they fly by. Stone's leg gets entangled in Soyuz's parachute cords and she is able to grab a tether on Kowalski's suit. Despite Stone's protests, Kowalski detaches himself from the tether to save her from drifting away with him, and she is pulled back towards the ISS. As Kowalski floats away, he radios her additional instructions and encouragement.
Nearly out of oxygen, Stone manages to enter the ISS via an airlock but must hastily make her way to the Soyuz to escape a fire. As she maneuvers the capsule away from the ISS, the tangled parachute tethers prevent Soyuz from separating from the station. She spacewalks to release the cables, succeeding just as the debris field completes its orbit, destroying the station and damaging the capsule. Stone aligns the Soyuz with Tiangong but discovers the damaged craft's thrusters have no fuel. After a brief communication with a Greenlandic Inuit fisherman and listening to him cooing a baby, Stone resigns herself to being stranded and shuts down the oxygen supply of the cabin in order to commit a painless suicide. As she begins to lose consciousness, Kowalski appears outside and enters the capsule. Scolding her for giving up, he tells her to use the Soyuz's landing rockets to propel the capsule toward Tiangong. Stone realizes that Kowalski's reappearance was not real, but is nonetheless given new strength and the will to live on. She restores the flow of oxygen and uses the landing rockets to navigate toward Tiangong.
Unable to dock the Soyuz with the station, Stone ejects herself via explosive decompression and uses a fire extinguisher as a makeshift thruster to travel toTiangong. Space debris has knocked Tiangong from its trajectory, and it begins rapidly deorbiting. Stone enters the Shenzou capsule just as Tiangong starts to break up on the upper edge of the atmosphere. As the capsule re-enters the Earth's atmosphere, Stone hears Mission Control over the radio tracking the capsule. It lands in a lake, but an electrical fire inside the capsule forces Stone to evacuate immediately. Opening the capsule hatch allows water to rapidly fill the capsule, which sinks, forcing Stone to shed her spacesuit underwater and swim ashore. She takes her first shaky steps on land, in the full gravity of Earth.
(from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravity_(film) )

地心引力》(英语Gravity)是一部于2013年上映的美国三维电影,以太空灾难为题材,由墨西哥导演艾方索·柯朗执导,他也参与了编剧、制片及剪辑等事务;由珊卓·布拉克乔治·克隆尼主演。
本片是第70届威尼斯电影节的开幕作品[4],并于2013年多伦多电影节上亮相[5],北美、台湾于2013年10月4日上映,中国大陆于11月19日上映。

评价
媒体综评96分,罗杰-艾伯特.com、《华盛顿邮报》、《华尔街日报》、《今日美国》、《帝国》杂志、《洛杉矶时报》、《滚石》、《新奥尔良时报》、《环球邮报》、《旧金山纪事报》、《纽约邮报》、《纽约每日新闻》、《夏洛特观察者报》、《纽约时报》、《娱乐周刊》、《俄勒冈人报》、《坦帕湾时报》、《纽约杂志》、《乡村之音》、《时代周刊》、《综艺》、《好莱坞报道者》等等媒体都给出满分;烂番茄新鲜度高达98%,赢得各方盛赞。[12]更被《时代周刊》选为年度十佳影片第一名。[13][14]
美媒代表性评价:“影史上最好的太空题材影片,没有之一”,“电影院中的极致试听享受,一部拥有深邃灵魂的技术神迹”,“堪称太空史诗的惊人佳作!波澜壮阔的视觉景观难以用语言形容,夸张至震撼的三维特效绝对是奇迹”,“完美的创意设计,完美的情节铺陈,其中还参杂着神秘的优雅”,“轻舞芭蕾和冷汗噩梦的完美结合,那种混杂着美丽与恐怖的基调,让最终的浪漫得以升华”,“事实证明,这部影片是一个伟大的电影作品,一个技术与故事线完美嵌合的杰作,即有惊人的视觉特效又有对生活的热爱!”[12]
著名导演詹姆斯·卡梅隆称赞本片是他看过最棒的太空冒险片[15]。导演葛雷摩·戴托罗亦大赞《引》片“让人为之惊艳”。[6]华尔街日报》的著名影评家摩根斯顿(Joe Morgenstern)赞叹本电影“是一个我们从来没有办法梦想的经历,直到现在!”中国影评人认为,地球空间站在片中暗喻成为人类赖以生存的母体,“当你离开了地球母体,失去了地心引力,你的生命也将随时面临危机。甚至,空间站都成为母体的暗示,当女主角逃开两轮危机,进入俄罗斯空间站。她褪去宇航服,在无重力的状态下蜷缩在太空舱里。这一场戏像极了婴儿子宫里的样子,飘在后面的带子也有意让观众将之视为脐带,并进一步明确这种暗示。这样的镜头首先代表的是安全感,如婴儿在母体的安全感,展示主角内心的变化。”影片更是一部讲述生存与成长的作品,“像所有冒险片一样,主角都是经历危机与痛苦之后才实现成长,女主角也是在犯了各种错之后产生新的变化,比如她变得更勇敢,变得更聪明。当最后与太空舱一起飞回地球的时候,她不再有恐惧,反而是放声大笑,她开始接受了这一切,这预示着她的成长。而当影片结尾,从水中飘起的女主角奋力游向海岸,先是以爬行的姿态登陆,然后尝试着用双腿直立行走,并最终站了起来。这种如生物进化史一样的表述,同样成为主角内心成长的暗示。”[16]
科学错误[编辑]
英国《每日邮报》采集了两名宇航员对此影片的看法,整理出十条违反太空常识之处[17][18]。如果遵循现实,故事本身就不成立。
天文物理学尼尔·狄葛拉西·泰森(Neil deGrasse Tyson),指出本片一些不合逻辑之处:[19]
  • 片名“地心引力”,其实应该是“无重力”(zero gravity)。
  • 乔治库隆尼向珊卓布拉克解释缺氧症状。珊卓布拉克饰演的是医师,他怎能班门弄斧?
  • 在无重力之下,珊卓布拉克头发竟然不会漂浮。
  • 人造卫星都从西向东环绕地球,太空碎片却反其道而行,从东向西运行。
  • 当乔治库隆尼松开珊卓布拉克的系索,他立即飘走。事实上在无重力之下,只要一拉两人就可靠在一起。
不过尼尔狄葛拉西泰森表示,他意不在评论本片好坏。他说:“如果你一定要知道,我觉得影片非常好看。”另外也有人总结出其他一些违反科学与现实的地方,例如“马特·科沃斯基(乔治·克鲁尼饰演)穿着的太空喷气背包(“载人机动装置”,MMU)在片中起着重要的作用,太空喷气背包确实存在,但这种装置并不适用于绝大多数任务,早在30年前就已经退役。更重要的是太空很大,即便穿上氮气推进的喷气背包,科沃斯基也很难营救斯通,更不用说前往另一艘航天器。何况在事故发生前,他已经耗费了背包的很多燃料,这就进一步降低了成功的可能性。”“影片中碎片袭击导致地球上空230英里(约合370公里)的任何航天器的卫星通讯中断,致使科沃斯基和斯通无法与地面联系。而实际上,通讯卫星的轨道高度是230英里这一高度的100倍,不可能出现通讯中断的情况。”“斯通又一个人从空间站前往“天宫一号”。完成这样的旅程宇航员需要借助不同的航天器充当“垫脚石”,整个过程非常复杂并且风险极高,很难完成。即使能够跨越影片中那样的距离,科沃斯基和斯通必须考虑每个航天器不同的高度、倾度以及速度等因素,同时考虑自身的方位。这是一项不可能完成的任务。”“斯通钻进“神舟”飞船返回舱后设法了解返回舱如何工作,而后重返地球大气层。整个过程中,返回舱疯狂旋转翻滚。实际上,重返地球大气层并不像影片描述的那么简单,而是一个非常复杂的过程,潜在的危险性与发射不相上下。”[20]

剧情[编辑]
美国航天飞机探索者号在太空执行修理哈勃望远镜的任务期间,由于俄罗斯导弹炸毁了一颗自己的卫星,其碎片造成连锁反应,将探索者号击毁。三名正在执行太空行走的宇航员中的两名,莱恩·斯通博士和麦特·可瓦斯基机长幸存。他们失去了和休斯顿航天中心的通讯。他们决定利用携带的推进器前往不远处的国际太空站
到达国际太空站之后,斯通抓住了一个扶手,但可瓦斯基的撞击使得他们又飞出。斯通的鞋被一个缆绳缠住所以两人没有飞远。因为推进器已经没有燃料,可瓦斯基自行脱离,使斯通可以平安进入太空站。站内人员已经撤离,但还有足够呼吸的氧气。一个故障造成站内着火,斯通在灭火失败之后及时逃入联盟号宇宙飞船。在太空碎片第二次袭来之际,联盟号终于得以脱离太空站,准备飞往中国天宫太空站,但飞船却没有燃料。
斯通的无线电系统只能找到一个不懂英语的业余无线电爱好者,她放出舱内氧气准备自尽。朦胧中她看到可瓦斯基回来,告诉她可以用着陆缓冲推进器来作为动力。醒来之后,斯通发现可瓦斯基只是她缺氧时的幻觉。她利用着陆缓冲推进器和随身携带的灭火器终于到达一百英里外的天宫。
天宫太空站因为太空碎片的袭击已经偏离轨道,即将坠入大气层。斯通及时进入神舟飞船,启动返回程序,在听到无线电通讯中说营救人员已经出动之后,坠落在一个荒无人烟的湖泊中。
斯通从神舟飞船返回仓中游出,到达了湖岸边。




























= = =


China moon rover enters lunar orbit: Xinhua
China's first lunar rover entered the moon's orbit on Friday, state media reported, a key step towards the vessel's planned landing later this month. 06 Dec 2013 21:20, http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/china-moon-rover-enters/912786.html












China National Space Agency



Qian Xuesen  
--- studied in the US, caught in Cold War struggles



  





Houston, We Have a Problem
China‘s notoriously lagging space program may finally be catching up to America’s.

(Foreign Policy, AUG 2, 2013 http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2013/08/02/photos_china_space_program)On Nov. 19, 1999, China's Shenzhou space program got off the ground with the launch of the Shenzhou I. It was a simple spacecraft, with no cargo, no life-support system, and certainly no astronaut. Just four years later, with the Shenzhou V and its pilot, Yang Liwei, China had become the third country in history to send a manned vessel into space. Since then, China has sent a total of five manned missions into orbit, including June's 15-day Shenzhou X mission, the country's longest to date. During the mission, three astronautsconducted automatic and manually controlled dockings with an orbiting module. These are crucial steps in establishing a permanent space station, which China hopes will replace its current small orbiting module by 2020.
While China remains significantly behind the world's other two space powers -- the United States and Russia --  the end of America's shuttle program in 2011 means that the future of manned space exploration may well shift, however gradually, from Washington to Beijing. China already has plans to send up a larger "space lab" in 2015 before unveiling its own space station in 2020. More ambitiously, it is also exploring the feasibility of putting a man on the moon by 2025. With these lofty goals, the next decade could be even more significant than the last. As John Hickman writes for Foreign Policy, there "are unmistakable warning signs that China may surpass the United States and Russia to become the world's preeminent spacefaring power."
= = =









Not about the moon, but still good:

















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