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Barbie 芭比娃娃

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发表于 2013-1-26 01:23:16 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 Ray 于 2013-12-27 14:35 编辑








Plus-Size Barbie Gets Slammed For 'Inaccurate' Portrayal Of Curvy Women: Doll Has Triple Chin, High BMI
TAGS Barbie, plus size, obese, BMI, double chin, curvy women
A plus-size Barbie image on a modeling website generates controversy for its offensive portrayal of a curvy woman's body image.

This holiday season, many little girls will open their gifts to find the standard Barbie doll with unrealistic proportions of what an American woman looks like. However, a new version of Barbie could well be on its way with several artists hoping to accurately portray the average-sized female body. But some of these new versions are stirruing up controversy. A Facebook group Plus Size Modeling recently shared a post of an image of a plus-size Barbie asking viewers: “Should toy companies start making plus sized Barbie dolls?”
While the photo has received over 35,000 “likes” on Facebook, there are a substantial number of comments that have addressed the issue of the doll’s extreme size. MaryBeth Gafford, a Facebook user, posted: “The triple chin is too much. Most overweight people (me included) only have a double chin no matter what size they are. This Barbie is inaccurate.” Gafford and others are unhappy with the doll because it portrays plus-size women as inherently unhealthy, when many are actually of a healthy weight, but just naturally curvy.
The plus-size Barbie image produced by Worth1000.com — not Barbie’s manufacturer Mattel — derives from an illustration contest on the website where artists compete every day in creative competitions. The plus-size Barbie won a 2011 contest called "Feeding Time 9," created by the artist Bakalia.
Statistics show that 60 percent of American women self-identify as part of the "plus-size" market, although there is some debate about the term itself. In a national survey conducted by Sonsi.com, a retailer from the same parent company as Lane Bryant, 1,000 plus-size women sizes 14 and up, were polled and asked: "When describing your size, what term do you prefer?" Twenty-eight percent of these women preferred the term “curvy,” while 25 percent of respondents preferred “plus-size,” and the other 25 percent preferred “full-figured.” This group of women were also asked who they drew inspiration from when it came to their shopping preferences. Top picks were friends and family at 30 percent, followed by plus-size icons at 21 percent, The Huffington Post reports.
Barbie has a long history of encouraging body image issues. In the 1960s, Mattel released "Slumber Party Barbie," which came with combs, hair rollers, and a sleeping bag, according to Rehabs.com. The Barbie set included a scale permanently stuck at 110 lbs. and a small book titled How To Lose Weight. In the book, the only words that were written in all-capital exhortation was "DON'T EAT!" The release of Barbie dolls like these helps perpetuate highly unrealistic images of female bodies that can have a powerful influence on how little girls see their own lives. Increased exposure to these dolls may lead to unhealthy body image self-perception, which is reflected in the increasing rate of eating disorders of young girls.
In the 1990s, the Yale Center for Eating and Weight Disorders calculated on average how much an average healthy woman’s body would have to change for her to have the equivalent proportions of a Barbie doll. Overall, women would have to grow two feet taller, extend their neck length by 3.2 inches, gain 5 inches in chest size, and lose 6 inches in waist circumference. These dimensions are considered impossible to achieve but are still emulated by young girls. In 2013, an infographic made its way around the internet which helped visualize the data found in the study, titled "Ken and Barbie at life size."
Yale's infographic on how Barbie's body compares to the average American woman's.
Critics of the plus-size Barbie commented that they wish there was an average Barbie who is not “skinny, not obese” but has “normal proportions.” There are some designers and public health advocates agree. Artist Nickolay Lamm of MyDeals.com recently created a 3D model of the “average” Barbie doll based on the Centers for Disease and Control Prevention (CDC) measurements of an average 19-year-old woman. Lamm told The Huffington Post, “So, if there's even a small chance of Barbie in its present form negatively influencing girls, and if Barbie looks good as an average sized woman in America, what's stopping Mattel from making one?”
The impact of unrealistic proportionally-sized dolls on self-body image and eating habits of young girls is significant. The National Institute of Mental Health says 20 million women have suffered from a clinically significant eating disorder at some point in their lives, with concerns about weight or shape expressed by girls as young as 6. To learn more about eating disorders, click here:www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/eating-disorders/index.shtml













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Barbie
is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy-company Mattel, Inc. and launched in March 1959. American businesswoman Ruth Handler is credited with the creation of the doll using a German doll called Bild Lilli as her inspiration.
Barbie is the figurehead of a brand of Mattel dolls and accessories, including other family members and collectible dolls. Barbie has been an important part of the toy fashion doll market for fifty years, and has been the subject of numerous controversies and lawsuits, often involving parody of the doll and her lifestyle.  (from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbie )

芭比娃娃(Barbie)是20世紀最廣為人知及最暢銷的玩偶,由Ruth Handler發明,於1959年3月9日舉辦的美國國際玩具展覽會(American International Toy Fair)上首次曝光。芭比玩偶由美泰兒公司擁有及生產。芭比娃娃及其它相關配件是以一比六的比例製作,此比例為娃娃屋模型的最大號,也稱為playscale。[1] (http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E8%8A%AD%E6%AF%94%E5%A8%83%E5%A8%83)

芭比之仙子的秘密
芭比之梦想豪宅第2季 第二季 / Barbie Live in the Dreamhouse Season 2
芭比之魅力公主学院 / 芭比之魅力公主学院
芭比之美人鱼历险记
芭比之梦想豪宅 第一季 / 芭比之生活在梦想豪宅

“芭比”发展罗丝·韩德勒发现她的女儿芭芭拉(Barbara,Barbie是简称)喜欢玩纸玩偶,而且比较喜欢玩像成人而不是婴儿或小孩的玩具,而当时大部份的立体玩偶都是以婴孩或儿童的形象出现的。罗丝深明成人形象的玩偶有市场发展空间,所以跟她的丈夫,美泰儿公司的其中一个创办人艾律提出芭比娃娃的意念,可惜艾律和公司的其他决策人都对此计划兴趣不大。罗丝·韩德勒说,“能跟一个有乳房的玩偶玩乐对一个小女孩的自我形象是十分重要的。”
在1956年,罗丝与芭芭拉及Kenneth往瑞士时,她在卢塞恩一个店铺橱窗中发现一种名为Bild Lilli doll的德国玩偶。该种成人形象的玩偶与Ruth Handler意念中的玩偶不谋而合,于是她购买了三个Bild Lilli doll,她将其中一个给送给芭芭拉,另外两个则送往美泰儿。Lilli doll是以一个受欢迎的漫画角色为蓝本而设计,她出现在Reinhard Beuthin在报纸连载的漫画专栏中,是一名独立自主的职业女性。Lilli doll由1955年首次在德国发售,原本目标顾客是成年人,但后来亦受儿童欢迎,因他们能用另外发售的服装为玩偶装扮。
回程往美国后,罗丝在工程师Jack Ryan的协助下,再次着手设计玩偶,并以女儿芭芭拉的名字为玩偶起名为芭比。芭比娃娃于1959年3月9日在纽约的美国国际玩具展览会上首次曝光,此日期成为芭比娃娃的官方生日日期。美泰儿在1964年取得Bild Lilli doll的版权后,Bild Lilli doll正式停产。首个芭比娃娃绑着马尾辫,身穿黑白斑马纹泳装,并有金发及深褐色头发两种。初期芭比以“青年时装模特儿”为绰头,她的衣服由美泰儿的时装设计师Charlotte Johnson设计。芭比娃娃推出后首年售出了约三十五万个。
罗丝相信芭比娃娃的成人外型是非常重要的。初期的市场调查显示部份家长并不喜欢玩偶的明显的胸部。芭比娃娃的外型多次改变,最明显的芭比娃娃的眼睛在1971年调校成向前望,而不是似最初向一边扫视的型态。
芭比娃娃是其中一个最先使用电视作推广的玩具,此模式后来广为其他玩具所用。据统计,芭比娃娃在超过150个国家有售,并已售出超过10亿盒,美泰儿称每秒钟就会售出3个芭比娃娃。
芭比娃娃及其相关的产品的标准比例是约一比六,此比例亦称为playscale。芭比的产品共不限于玩偶和玩偶的衣饰,亦包括芭比品牌下商品,如书本、时装及电子游戏等。芭比曾出现一系列的动画中,并于1999年的动画《玩具总动员 2》中客串。
芭比娃娃另一独特之处在于,她成为了一个文化标记,而且得到玩具界中罕有的荣誉。1974年纽约时代广场的一部份被名命为“芭比大道”一星期。1985年,后现代艺术家安迪·华荷制作了芭比的图象。
“芭比”设定芭比的全名是 Barbara Millicent Roberts,过去这些年来她被赋予相当多的同伴,最被熟知的就是她的帅男友Ken (Ken Carson),他第一次登场是在西元1961年,如同芭比一样,肯也是使用了罗丝·韩德勒儿子的名字。芭比与肯之间分分合合的关系相当的知名,他们在2004年也宣布暂时分开的消息。在芭比社交圈中其他不同种族且长期来往的朋友还包含了Hispanic 泰瑞莎(Teresa),非裔美籍人 克莉斯堤(Christie) 与史提芬(Steven) (Christie的男友),以及Kayla。芭比完整的朋友清单,可见List of Barbie's friends and family。
根据六十年代兰登书屋的小说,芭比的父母分别是为佐治和玛格利·特罗拔丝,他们都来自威斯康辛州一个名为韦罗斯的虚构市镇,而芭比则就读威斯康辛州韦罗斯市的韦罗斯高中,和基于史岱文森高中而虚构,处于纽约市的曼哈顿国际高中。
芭比有纪录的宠物曾有过芭比娃娃有超过43种宠物,21只狗、12匹马、3匹矮种马、6只猫、一只鹦鹉、一只小黑猩猩、一只熊猫、一只小狮子、一头长颈鹿和一头斑马。她拥有粉红色的敞篷车、拖车、吉普等车。也拥有一张飞行员执照,当她没有担任空服员在机舱服务时,会去操作商用客机。
从玩偶到文化象征从第一个芭比诞生之日起,它就一直在被不断地改进和创新。芭比娃娃的外形历经约500次以上的修正与改良,成为今日的样子。而最近的外貌更是以美国著名的华裔运动员关颖珊为原型。为了让“芭比”有漂亮的时装,从1995年至今约有10亿件以上的衣服生产出来,每年约有一百款芭比新装推出。现在“芭比娃娃”畅销世界150个国家,总销售量超过10亿个。这个介于小女孩和成年女子之间的美国少女,是世界玩具市场上畅销最久的玩具,成为全世界男女老少的心爱之物。
现在,芭比娃娃今年50岁了,但她依然年轻,她比曾经风行一时的椰菜娃娃、泰迪熊都要活得长。没有人知道这是为什么,即使她的创造者露丝·汉德勒也无法解释。无论在玩具世界里还是在真实生活中,长寿都是神秘而不可捉摸的事情。曾经有人问露丝·汉德勒:芭比为什么会表现得这么好?她只是微笑地回答:“我是一个市场推广天才。”但是,美泰公司还生产很多其他类型的玩具,不但没有一个比芭比表现得出色,而且夭折的也的确不少。应该说,露丝当初的灵感给了这个娃娃永久的生命,她是贴近生活,真正为孩子们创造出来“芭比”的“芭比之母”。
芭比已经远远超越了玩具的定义,成为一个不朽的文化符号。她吸引了流行大师安迪·沃霍的视线,他对“芭比”的倾心,丝毫也不亚于他对玛丽莲·梦露的迷恋;90年代末的一段时期里,“芭比”几乎天天生活在美国人的收音机中,虽然高唱着“芭比娃娃”的是丹麦演唱组合;她是20世纪生活的代表,是美国女性的一个象征,是现代的蒙娜丽莎,就连以严肃自居的学院,也不得不屈尊研究“芭比现象”。学生们在社会学课堂上要完成这样的作业:针对芭比成为一种榜样都有过怎样的批评?你认为制造商是否应考虑这些批评?虽然这些问题可能永远没有“正确的”答案。
无论引起了怎样的讨论和赞扬,但有一点可以肯定,“芭比”是玩偶设计业诞生的第一个活生生的女人,而不再是一个被动的小孩子。“芭比”的成人化设计打开了小女孩们的视野,她们可以通过“芭比”感知到幼儿园以外的世界,与“芭比”一起体验成人生活的各个层面。从海滩女郎到政治家,芭比变化万千的形象激发了孩子们的想象力,她们希望自己在长大后也能像芭比一样。
芭比的成功为美泰公司带来了大量财富,1966年露丝50岁时,美泰公司已经统治了竞争激烈的玩具世界,它控制了美国20亿美元玩具市场12%的份额。露丝说:“那时我已经有我的事业,我的丈夫,我的孩子还有芭比和肯。我处于世界之巅。”
但此后露丝的生活并不顺遂。1970年,露丝被诊断患有乳腺癌,并接受了乳房切除手术。同时,美泰公司的新主管开始将公司产品多元化,不再把生产玩具作为重心,这一政策最终导致露丝和她的丈夫被迫远离他们当初创建的公司业务。1975年,露丝辞去了总裁职务,离开了自己和丈夫创立的公司。
(from Baidu Baiki , http://baike.baidu.com/view/6817.htm )


Barbie Fashion - Dress Up and Beauty Makeover Girl Games (from http://www.barbie.com/activities/fashion/ )For pinktastic fashionable Dress-up and Makeover games, look no further! Filled with stylish clothes, oh-so-chic shoes, hip hair accessories and glitterized fashions, this closet resembles a boutique. More than just a wardrobe, it’s a place where you can play Barbie princess dress-up, fun makeover and Barbie Games | Barbie Videos | Dress-up and Makeover Games | Barbie Sisters and Friends | Princess and Fairy Games  | Barbie WoW | Barbie Life in the Dreamhouse | I Can Be

Fictional biography
Barbie's full name is Barbara Millicent Roberts. In a series of novels published by Random House in the 1960s, her parents' names are given as George and Margaret Roberts from the fictional town of Willows, Wisconsin.[9] In the Random House novels, Barbie attended Willows High School, while in the Generation Girl books, published by Golden Books in 1999, she attended the fictional Manhattan International High School in New York City (based on the real-life Stuyvesant High School[10]).
She has an on-off romantic relationship with her boyfriend Ken (Ken Carson), who first appeared in 1961. A news release from Mattel in February 2004 announced that Barbie and Ken had decided to split up,[11] but in February 2006 they were hoping to rekindle their relationship after Ken had a makeover.[12] Barbie has had over 40 pets including cats and dogs, horses, a panda, a lion cub, and a zebra. She has owned a wide range of vehicles, including pink Corvette convertibles, trailers, and jeeps. She also holds a pilot's license, and operates commercial airliners in addition to serving as a flight attendant. Barbie's careers are designed to show that women can take on a variety of roles in life, and the doll has been sold with a wide range of titles including Miss Astronaut Barbie (1965), Doctor Barbie (1988) and Nascar Barbie (1998).
Mattel has created a range of companions for Barbie, including Hispanic Teresa, Midge, African American Christie, and Steven (Christie's boyfriend). Barbie's siblings and cousins were also created including Skipper, Todd and Stacie (twin brother and sister), Kelly, Krissy, and Francie. Barbie was friendly with Blaine, an Australian surfer, during her split with Ken in 2004.[13]

Mattel toys:



















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发表于 2013-1-26 15:10:43 | 显示全部楼层
barbie, barbie, cute barbie
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