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[经验方法] (转)如何利用张培基《英译中国现代散文选》快速提高翻译水平

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发表于 2012-11-14 13:55:32 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
这是我在短暂的考研复习时间里总结出的快速提高翻译水平的方法,练习材料是大家都知道的张培基的《英译中国现代散文选》。



很多同学都知道张培基的《英译中国现代散文选》是练习汉译英的绝好书籍,可到底怎么来用这套书却不是每一个同学都知道的。大多数同学都采取先自己翻译然后对照范文的方法。这种方法并不错,但要真正行之有效,关键在于对比过后的反思和总结。很多同学对比完之后,并不能充分理解范文的优胜之处,或即使理解了,并不能变成自己的东西,下次还是按自己原来的套路去翻译。这样的练习不如不做。我们做一篇翻译就要有一篇的收获,而这个收获关键在于对比范文之后的反思和总结。



本人在备考初期,也是先自己翻译后对比范文,看过就扔一边儿了。后来再翻译之前的东西时,发现自己还是没有多少进步。认真反思之后,发现自己缺少对范文的透彻理解。于是我花费了很多心思在研究范文上,并把范文的每一个短语每一个句型每一个用法,都一一查阅,弄明白它们的详细用法,并记录在笔记本及书上。时时翻阅,以便记忆。后来再翻译之前的文章,看着中文,那些总结的翻译知识点就一一浮现在脑海中,基本上能够再现范文。



我复习翻译的时间很短,但因为方法得当,还是取得了不错的成绩。在这里,我把自己学习翻译的具体步骤写下来,跟大家分享,希望能够帮助同学们在翻译中取得不错的成绩!



第一,依照范文,逐字逐句考察,只要是有价值的翻译点,都一一按顺序记录在笔记本上,并根据相应顺序在范文上标出数字,以便能够快速便捷的在原文中找出该翻译点。



第二,对范文中出现的短语、生僻单词等,我都会在笔记本中对其进行详细阐述,包括中文解释、双语例句等。对于有多种用法的短语,我也会列出最常用用法,并配以例句。只有这样,在学习中才会举一反三,全方位掌握这些翻译点。



第三,根据我的学习经验,在第一次自己翻译并对照范文后,把这些总结的翻译点在范文中用数字序号标示出来,并仔细回忆笔记本中关于该翻译点的用法解释。在以后的翻译中,看到中文即可回忆出笔记中的翻译点,并可根据笔记中所标示的数字编号一一对应中文翻译下来。这样翻译得来的译文非常接近范文。



第四,下面是张培基的《英译中国现代散文选》第一篇我自己做的笔记,大家可以参考一下我的做法,在以后的学习中模仿着试一下,看有没有效果,呵呵。



第一篇 艰难的国运与雄健的国民

1. the course of history

原文中是"历史的道路",而course不仅有道路的意思,还有进程、过程的意思,比较好的诠释了原文。可以把"the course of history"当成一个短语来记,表示“历史进程、历史演进”。注意下文中(winding through) course n. (河流的)走向,所经之路

2. be beset with

A. 被包围,受围攻   

The enemy beset the town with a strong army. 敌人以重兵包围了该镇。

We were beset by mosquitoes in the swamp. 我们在沼泽地遭受蚊虫围攻。

B. 被环绕,围绕;镶嵌

The city is beset with towering mountains. 该市由高山环抱。

The crown was beset with diamonds and jewels. 皇冠上镶嵌着钻石和珠宝。

C. 受到多方面(不好)的困扰  

His life is beset with hardships. 他的生活充满艰辛。  

He was beset by doubts. 他疑虑重重。

The country was beset with many problems. 这个国家被许多困难所困扰。

3. short of

A. 达不到   

Your work falls short of my expectations. 你的工作未达到我的期望。

B. 除……外,(否则,不然)   

Short of calling a meeting, they don't know how they can get their plan approved.

除非召开会议,否则他们真不知道他们的计划怎么才能获准。

Short of a miracle, we're certain to lose now. 除非出现奇迹,不然我们现在是输定了。

C. 缺少,不足

They are short of food and clothes. 他们缺吃少穿。

I must stop a bit. I'm short of breath. 我得歇一歇,我喘不过气了。

We did not buy anything because we were short of money. 我们因为缺钱就什么也没买。

4.  roll on

A. (河流)滔滔流动,滚滚向前;(土地)起伏  

The Yellow River rolls on day and night. 黄河日日夜夜地奔腾不息。

The country went rolling on for miles and miles. 那片土地绵延起伏好几英里。

B. (时光)流逝   

The years rolled on. 岁月流逝。

The years rolled on but she didn't come back. 几年过去了,但她没有回来。

In the meanwhile, time did not roll on without effecting his usual changes.

在这期间,随着岁月的流逝,他的生活也照例跟着起了变化。

C. roll on...! ……快快到来吧!(口语)

Roll on Christmas! I'm looking forward to all the good food.

圣诞节快点来吧!我期盼着那所有的美味佳肴呢!  

Roll on Friday! 星期五快来吧!

5. thousands upon thousands of + 复数 = tens of thousands of 成千上万

Thousands upon thousands of people attended the ceremony. 成千上万的人参加了那个仪式。

He and his family wrote literally thousands upon thousands of letters.
他和他家人互通了上千封书信。

6. come up against 突然(或意外)碰到(困难、反对等)

He often came up against the problem of money. 他那时常常碰到钱的问题。

When they were dealing with the case, they came up against a series of of obstacles.

当他们在审理这个案子的时候,遇到了一系列的障碍。

We expect to come up against a lot of opposition to the scheme.
我们预计这个计划要遭到很多人反对。

7. flank v. 位于……侧面(常用be flanked with/by)

The road is flanked with trees and flowers. 路的两旁有花草。

The prisoner was flanked by the two detectives. 那个囚犯夹在两名侦探的中间。

High buildings flanked the alley. 小巷两侧高楼耸立。

8. wind through

A. 蜿蜒穿过,流过   

A path winds through the forest. 一条小路蜿蜒穿过森林。

They wound their way through the narrow valley. 他们在狭窄的山谷中迂回前进。

B. (使)贯穿于(作品中),充分地表现于(作品里)   

The writer wound his opinions through this article. 作者将他的观点贯穿于这篇文章之中。

A thread of sorrow winds through her poetry. 悲伤的情绪贯穿于她的诗作中。

9. many a + 单数: 许多

Many a student likes to read this magazine. 很多学生喜欢读这本杂志。

Many a day was spent preparing the new textbooks. 好多天时间花在编写新的教科书上。

10. pass through

A. 穿过;通过(某处)

The waterway is wide for many ships to pass through. 这条河很宽,足以使很多船通过。

I passed through a picturesque village on my way here. 来这里的路上,我经过一个风景如画的乡村。

He passed through the doorway and entered the room. 他穿过门口进入室

B. 经历;遭受   

This curio has passed throgh many hands. 这种古玩已经多次转手了。

The country is passing through an economic crisis. 这个国家正在经历一场经济危机。

This soldier passed through many dangers. 这个士兵经历了许多危险。

11. now... now... 时而……时而

Her moods kept changing ---- now happy, now sad. 她的情绪多变,时而高兴,时而伤心。

It was now hot, now cold. 天气忽热忽冷。

12. a safe and smooth place: s in "safe" and "smooth"押头韵,增强艺术感。

13. still adv. (强调比较级)还要,更加

It's hot today, but it'll be still hotter tomorrow. 今天很热,但明天会更热。

The sick child looks still worse today than yesterday. 那个病童的情况今天看起来比昨天更不妙。

That exercise was difficult, but this is still more difficult. 那个练习题难,但这一题更难。

14. generate in him a sensation: 对比下段中"inspire in us a sensation". 可得出一个句型: sth. + 动词(表“引起”的动词)+ in + 人称代词 + 感觉。可用来表示某物使人产生某种感觉。童鞋们可对比一下自己在表达该意时所使用的句型(比如:it gives me a feeling )。

15. be confronted with 面临(困难、危险等)

The new system will be confronted with great difficulties at the start.
这种新的制度一开始将会面临很大困难。

After being confronted with our evidence, the other side had to back down.

面对我们摆出来的证据,对方只得作出让步。

16. be symbolic of 是……的象征

A title may only be a label, a word, but it is also symbolic of so much more.

一个称号也许只是一个标签、一个简单的词,但它却代表了更多的含义。

The snake is symbolic of evil. 蛇象征邪恶。

The dove is symbolic of peace. 鸽子象征和平。

17. brace up 打起精神,下定决心

The candidate braced up after his defeat. 这位候选人在竞选失败后重新振作精神。

You'll have to brace up to your misfortune and get on with your work.

你得做好准备正视自己的不幸,继续干你的工作。

18. ... to the tune of our solemn...   to [表示伴随跟着; 伴随;随同

She danced to the music. 她合着音乐跳舞。

to do something to one's liking 据某人的爱好做某事

19、build up 发展,使强大,建立

They have been building up their military strength. 他们一直在发展军事力量。

The enemy are building up their offensive capacity along the border.

敌人正在边界一带增强他们的进攻能力
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